james

title
Constitution Support in Cities, Counties, and States (0.2 hours)
State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State judges opine (VI.3)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)

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Constitutional Impeachment Is Loss Prevention (0.1 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Chief justice presides over impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)

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Local Governments with Good Boundaries Build Freedom (0.2 hours)
Offsetting powers
Scope

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How Elections, Parties, and Charters Matter (0.1 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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COVID Tyranny Should Be Overpowered Using Laws (0.2 hours)
State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)

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The First 1,461 Days of a Constitutionalist President (0.1 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
War declaration (I.8.11)
Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
Senate vote when equally divided (I.3.4)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
Appointment making (II.2.2)

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American Government Finance in the Long Run: 1790 to 1990 (0.9 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Income-tax laws (16)

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Neighborhood Cities Increase Freedom (0.1 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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“Constitution Support” Pushes Back Progressive Tyranny (0.2 hours)
Loss limiting by oath to support Constitution
All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)

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Zero Tolerance for Election-Manner Violations (0.1 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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2022 Election Cycle Begins (0.1 hours)
Parties
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Election Power and Duty Are Delegated to Legislators and Electors (0.1 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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Productive Property Adds Value for Everyone (0.2 hours)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
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Holding Unabridged Elections (0.2 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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Votes Matter When a Party Requires Good Voting Scores (0.2 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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Voting Guide for Constitutionalists (0.2 hours)
Processes
Voting scores (48)

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Our COVID-19 Plan Would Minimize Mortality and Lockdown-Induced Collateral Damage (0.1 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Informed Consent (0.1 hours)
Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment making (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)

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On the Reading of Old Constitutions (0.2 hours)
Offsetting powers
Loss limiting by oath to support Constitution

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Republican Party Blocks Constitutionalist Majorities and Liberty (0.1 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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Government Agencies Are Holding Back ‘Fast Tests’ that Could Be Saving Lives (0.1 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Your Future Earnings Are Quickly Becoming Other People’s Money (0.1 hours)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)

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You Built That: Real Net Voluntary Value Added per Capita (0.3 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Income-tax laws (16)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)

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City Problems Need City Solutions: Open Up Counties Again (0.1 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Mass Murder Can Be Reduced: Disincentivize, Detect, Deescalate, Limit (0.1 hours)
Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)

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Assessing the FDA via the Anomaly of Off-Label Drug Prescribing (1.2 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Republicans: The Key Progressives (0.2 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
Voting scores (48)

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Living through Coronavirus, Living with Coronavirus (0.2 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Test Sensitivity Is Secondary to Frequency and Turnaround Time for COIVID-19 Surveillance (0.8 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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YouTube Plays Doctor: No More Second Opinions (0.2 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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Hydroxychloroquine, Used Early, Is the Most-Effective COVID-19 Treatment, and Is Likely Much Better Given Supplemental Zinc (0.1 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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We May Already Have Herd Immunity – An Interview with Professor Sunetra Gupta (0.4 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
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George Washington’s Error and the Corruption of Banking (0.1 hours)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)

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The Income Tax: Lessons from the Sixteenth Amendment (0.2 hours)
Income-tax laws (16)
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The Scope of the President’s Pardon Power (0.4 hours)
Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
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Caucuses Rule (0.0 hours)
Caucuses (52)
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Caucuses Rules (0.0 hours)
Caucuses (52)
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Closed-Voting Rule (0.0 hours)
Closed voting (52)
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Debate Rules (0.0 hours)
Debates (49)
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Donations Power (0.0 hours)
Donations (43)
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Electoral-College Rules (0.0 hours)
Electoral college (52)
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Meetings Power (0.0 hours)
Meetings (43)
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One-State-at-a-Time Rules (0.0 hours)
One state at a time (53)
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Proportional-Voting Rule (0.0 hours)
Proportional scoring (52)
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Proportional-Voting Rules (0.0 hours)
Proportional voting (52)
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Schedules and Controls Power (0.0 hours)
Schedules and controls (43)
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Strongest-State-to-Weakest Rule (0.0 hours)
Strongest to weakest (53)
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Voting-Record Rule (0.0 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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War Powers and the Effects of Unauthorized Military Engagements on Federal Spending (0.5 hours)
Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
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Who Are “Officers of the United States”? (5.1 hours)
Inferior-appointments vesting (II.2.2)
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Veto Override Requirements and Executive Success (1.5 hours)
Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)

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The Rigors of a Rigged System? Delegate Allocation Rules in the 2008 and 2016 Presidential Primaries (0.4 hours)
Proportional voting (52)
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The Original Meaning of “Emoluments” in the Constitution (1.8 hours)
Consent to foreign gifts (I.9.8)
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The Original Public Meaning of Amendment in the Origination Clause Versus the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2.5 hours)
Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
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Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data (1.0 hours)
Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
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Circuits or Circuses: The Case for Circuit Level Judicial Reform (0.2 hours)
Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)

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News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Primaries: Horse Race Reporting Has Consequences (0.7 hours)
One state at a time (53)
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12 Reasons Why Federal Judiciary Is Irremediably Broken (0.3 hours)
Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)

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The Unscripted Evolution of Presidential Nominations: From Founding-Era Idealism to the Dominance of Party Primaries (1.4 hours)
Caucuses (52)
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Privatizing the U.S. Postal Service (0.2 hours)
Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
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The Postal Power of Congress: A Study in Constitutional Expansion (5.1 hours)
Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
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What the Constitution Means by “Duties, Imposts, and Excises” and “Taxes” (Direct or Otherwise) (2.0 hours)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
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Habeas Corpus and the American Revolution (2.7 hours)
Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
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The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional Violations (1.6 hours)
Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
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Casting Votes of the Vice-Presidents, 1789-1915 (0.2 hours)
Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
Senate vote when equally divided (I.3.4)

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Southern Delegates and Republican National Convention Politics, 1880-1928 (1.4 hours)
Electoral college (52)
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Clarity and Reasonable Doubt in Early State-Constitutional Judicial Review (1.2 hours)
State judges opine (VI.3)
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Abolition of Slavery (0.2 hours)
Slavery, involuntary-servitude laws (13.2)
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Admiralty (0.1 hours)
Cases of admiralty and maritime (III.2.1)
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Ambassadors (0.1 hours)
Cases on ambassadors, ministers, consuls (III.2.1)
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Amendments (0.1 hours)
Amendment proposal (V)
Amendment ratification (V)

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Appellate Jurisdiction Clause (0.2 hours)
Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)

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Appointments Clause (0.2 hours)
Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment making (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)

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Army Clause (0.2 hours)
Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
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Bankruptcy Clause (0.1 hours)
Bankruptcy laws (I.8.4)
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Borrowing Clause (0.1 hours)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
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Captures Clause (0.1 hours)
Capture rules (I.8.11)
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Citizen-State Diversity (0.1 hours)
Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
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Coinage Clause (0.1 hours)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
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Commander in Chief (0.1 hours)
Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
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Commander of Militia (0.1 hours)
Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
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Commerce among the States (0.4 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
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Commerce with Foreign Nations (0.1 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
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Commerce with the Indian Tribes (0.1 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
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Counterfeiting (0.1 hours)
Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
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Declare War (0.2 hours)
War declaration (I.8.11)
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Diversity Clause (0.1 hours)
Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
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Emoluments Clause (0.1 hours)
Consent to foreign gifts (I.9.8)
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Enclave Clause (0.1 hours)
Limited government-district laws (I.8.17)
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Executive Vesting Clause (0.1 hours)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
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Federal Party (0.1 hours)
Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
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Impeachment (0.1 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)

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Income Tax (0.1 hours)
Income-tax laws (16)
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Inferior Courts (0.2 hours)
Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)

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Inferior Officers (0.1 hours)
Inferior-appointments vesting (II.2.2)
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Interstate Disputes (0.1 hours)
Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
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Judicial Power (0.2 hours)
Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
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Judicial Vesting Clause (0.1 hours)
National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)

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Legislative Vesting Clause (0.3 hours)
All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
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Marque and Reprisal (0.1 hours)
Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
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Military Installations (0.1 hours)
Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
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Military Regulations (0.2 hours)
Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
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Militia Clause (0.1 hours)
Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
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Naturalization (0.2 hours)
Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
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Navy Clause (0.1 hours)
Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
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Oath of Office (0.1 hours)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)

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Oaths Clause (0.1 hours)
State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)
State judges opine (VI.3)
National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)

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Offenses Against the Law of Nations Clause (0.1 hours)
Law of nations offenses (I.8.10)
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Organizing the Militia (0.1 hours)
Militia rules for USA service (I.8.16)
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Origination Clause (0.1 hours)
Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
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Pardon Power (0.1 hours)
Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
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Patent and Copyright Clause (0.1 hours)
Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
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Poll Taxes (0.1 hours)
Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
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Post Office (0.1 hours)
Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
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Presentment Clause (0.2 hours)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)

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Punishment for Impeachment (0.1 hours)
Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
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Punishment of Treason (0.0 hours)
Treason punishment (III.3.2)
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Recess Appointments Clause (0.1 hours)
Senate-recess commissions (II.2.3)
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Repeal of Prohibition (0.1 hours)
Liquor-transport or -import laws (21.2)
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Reserved Powers of the States (0.2 hours)
President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)

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Spending Clause (0.3 hours)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
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Suffrage—Race (0.1 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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Supremacy Clause (0.2 hours)
President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
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Suspension of Habeas Corpus (0.2 hours)
Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
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The Heritage Guide to the Constitution (0.0 hours)
Offsetting powers
Scope
Processes

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Treaties (0.1 hours)
Cases under treaties (III.2.1)
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Treaty Clause (0.3 hours)
President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)

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Trial of Impeachment (0.1 hours)
Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Chief justice presides over impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)

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Uniformity Clause (0.1 hours)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
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Vice President as Presiding Officer (0.0 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)

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Weights and Measures (0.0 hours)
Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
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Saying Too Little, Too Late: Public Finance Textbooks and the Excess Burdens of Taxation (0.6 hours)
Income-tax laws (16)
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Nine Criteria to Evaluate Legislation (0.1 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An Overview (0.2 hours)
Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)

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Rules of Engagement and Abusive Citizens (0.7 hours)
Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
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The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions (0.7 hours)
Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
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Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff (0.9 hours)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
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Illusion of Suffrage: Female Voting Rights and the Women’s Poll Tax Repeal Movement after the Nineteenth Amendment (1.6 hours)
Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
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The Origins and Meaning of “Vacancies That May Happen during the Recess” in the Constitution’s Recess Appointments Clause (1.5 hours)
Senate-recess commissions (II.2.3)
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Fiscal Discriminations in Three Wars (1.0 hours)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
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Optimal Primaries (1.2 hours)
Strongest to weakest (53)
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Suspension and Delegation (3.4 hours)
Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
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The Filibuster and the Framing: Why the Cloture Rule is Unconstitutional and What To Do About It, pp. 49-50 (0.0 hours)
Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
Senate vote when equally divided (I.3.4)

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State Constitutional Prohibitions on Special Laws (2.3 hours)
State judges opine (VI.3)
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The Long Winding Road to the White House: Caucuses, Primaries and National Party Conventions in the History of American Presidential Elections (0.5 hours)
Meetings (43)
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The Forgotten Core Meaning of the Suspension Clause (4.9 hours)
Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
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The First Ever (Maybe) Original Jurisdiction Standings (0.1 hours)
Cases on ambassadors, ministers, consuls (III.2.1)
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How to Count to Thirty-Four: The Constitutional Case for a Constitutional Convention (0.8 hours)
Amendment proposal (V)
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Unconventional Wisdom: The Future of Presidential Nominating Conventions (0.9 hours)
Meetings (43)
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America’s Turning Point (0.2 hours)
President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)

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Whence Comes Section One? The Abolitionist Origins of the Fourteenth Amendment (3.6 hours)
Slavery, involuntary-servitude laws (13.2)
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Proposing Constitutional Amendments by Convention: Rules Governing the Process (2.2 hours)
Amendment proposal (V)
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States Should Enforce, Not Revise, the Constitution (0.4 hours)
Amendment proposal (V)
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Momentum and Social Learning in Presidential Primaries (1.3 hours)
Schedules and controls (43)
Strongest to weakest (53)

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Truth and Consequences: A Guide to Understanding the U.S. Government Debt and Deficits (0.5 hours)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
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A Civilized Nation: The Early American Constitution, the Law of Nations, and the Pursuit of International Recognition (5.8 hours)
Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
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Federal Governmental Power: The Voting Rights Act (0.3 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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The Primary Purpose of Presidential Primaries (1.2 hours)
One state at a time (53)
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The Internal and External Powers of the National Government (0.6 hours)
President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
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Following the Rules? Candidate Strategy in Presidential Primaries (0.6 hours)
Proportional voting (52)
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The Original Understanding of the Capture Clause (0.7 hours)
Capture rules (I.8.11)
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The Roles of Party Organizations, Party-Connected Committees, and Party Allies in Elections (1.2 hours)
Donations (43)
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The Klan, the Congress, and the Court: Congressional Enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments & the State Action Syllogism, a Brief Historical Overview (1.8 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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“Split Screens” and “Spin Rooms”: Debate Modality, Post-Debate Coverage, and the New Videomalaise (0.8 hours)
Debates (49)
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Does the Constitution Prescribe Rules for Its Own Interpretation? [SSRN version] (2.9 hours)
Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
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The Constitution’s Congress (0.3 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)

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Immigration Law: A Primer (5.1 hours)
Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
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Meaningful Participation and the Evolution of the Reformed Presidential Nominating System (0.5 hours)
Schedules and controls (43)
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Presidential Debates and Deliberative Democracy (0.2 hours)
Debates (49)
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Liquor Laws and Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History of the Twenty-First Amendment (1.3 hours)
Liquor-transport or -import laws (21.2)
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Too Clever by Half: The Unconstitutionality of Partial Representation of the District of Columbia in Congress (2.5 hours)
Limited government-district laws (I.8.17)
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The Rise, Fall, and Rise Again of Privateers (0.5 hours)
Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
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The Utility of Party Conventions in an Era of Low Visibility and Campaign Finance Reform (0.5 hours)
Meetings (43)
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The Forgotten Constitutional Law of Treason and the Enemy Combatant Problem (2.3 hours)
Treason punishment (III.3.2)
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The US Constitution and Monetary Powers: An Analysis of the 1787 Constitutional Convention and How a Constitutional Transformation of the Nation’s Monetary System Emerged [CiteSeerX] (1.2 hours)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
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Congress Gave and Congress Hath Taken Away: Jurisdiction Withdrawal and the Constitution (3.0 hours)
Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)

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Federal Land Retention and the Constitution’s Property Clause: The Original Understanding (2.2 hours)
Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
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Roles and Responsibilities of Selected Leadership Positions (0.1 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)

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The Constitution and National Security: The Intent of the Framers [Google Books reader] (1.4 hours)
Militia rules for USA service (I.8.16)
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The Consequences of Front-Loading. The Front-Loading Problem in Presidential Nominations, pp. 56-94 [Internet Archive reader/loan] (1.4 hours)
One state at a time (53)
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The General Welfare Clause and the Public Trust: An Essay in Original Understanding (2.2 hours)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
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Estimating the Worldwide Volume of Counterfeit U.S. Currency: Data and Extrapolation (0.8 hours)
Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
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Structuralism and the War Powers: The Army, Navy and Militia Clauses (1.5 hours)
Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
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The Irrepressible Myth of Marbury (1.6 hours)
Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)

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A Promise Fulfilled? Open Primaries and Representation (0.8 hours)
Closed voting (52)
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The Enumerated Powers of States (1.1 hours)
State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)

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The Essential Meaning of Executive Power (5.2 hours)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
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Senate Confirmation Process: An Overview (0.1 hours)
Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
article  comments
The Tenth Amendment and Local Government (0.3 hours)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
article  comments
The Limited Nature of the Senate’s Advice and Consent Role (1.2 hours)
Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)

article  comments
New Evidence of the Original Meaning of the Commerce Clause (1.2 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
article  comments
Our Three Commerce Clauses and the Presumption of Intrasentence Uniformity (0.8 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
article  comments
The Law of Nations and the Offenses Clause of the Constitution: A Defense of Federalism (1.5 hours)
Law of nations offenses (I.8.10)
article  comments
Delegation and Original Meaning (2.5 hours)
All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
article  comments
Rehnquist’s Renunciation? The Chief Justice’s Constitutional Duty to “Preside” over Impeachment Trials (1.2 hours)
Chief justice presides over impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)

article  comments
Military Leaders’ Obligation to Justify Killing in War (0.5 hours)
Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
article  comments
Patent and Copyright Term Extension and the Constitution: A Historical Perspective (4.2 hours)
Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
article  comments
The American Militia and the Origin of Conscription: A Reassessment (1.8 hours)
Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
article  comments
The Idea of Progress in Copyright Law (2.1 hours)
Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
article  comments
Everything I Need to Know About Presidents I Learned from Dr. Seuss (0.4 hours)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)

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The Original Meaning of the Commerce Clause (1.9 hours)
Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
article  comments
Meeting Analysis: Findings from Research and Practice (0.9 hours)
Caucuses (52)
article  comments
A Manual of Parliamentary Practice for the Use of the Senate of the United States (3.1 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)

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If It’s Not a Runaway, It’s Not a Real Grand Jury (0.9 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)

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Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not) (1.6 hours)
Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
article  comments
Martin Van Buren: The Greatest American President (1.1 hours)
Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
article  comments
Admiralty and the Eleventh Amendment (2.6 hours)
Cases of admiralty and maritime (III.2.1)
article  comments
Veto! The Jacksonian Revolution in Constitutional Law (2.3 hours)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)

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Congress as Grand Jury: The Role of the House of Representatives in the Impeachment of an American President [HeinOnline paywall] (2.7 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)

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Impeachment: The Structural Understanding [HeinOnline paywall] (0.7 hours)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
article  comments
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: Guideposts of Limited Government (1.1 hours)
State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)

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History Right?: Historical Scholarship, Original Understanding, and Treaties as Supreme Law of the Land (2.5 hours)
Cases under treaties (III.2.1)
article  comments
The Evolution of Money: A Story of Constitutional Nullification (2.0 hours)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
article  comments
The Island of Duty: The Practice of Immigration Law on Ellis Island (1.5 hours)
Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
article  comments
The Treaty Power and American Federalism (3.0 hours)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)

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Primary Election Systems and Representation (0.9 hours)
Closed voting (52)
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Interests versus Ideology in the Ratification of the 16th and 17th Amendments (0.6 hours)
Amendment ratification (V)
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Against Campaign Finance Reform [HeinOnline paywall] (0.8 hours)
Donations (43)
article  comments
Estimating the Effect of Campaign Spending on Senate Election Outcomes Using Instrumental Variables (0.8 hours)
Donations (43)
article  comments
Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution (0.1 hours)
Amendment ratification (V)
article  comments
Congressional Control Over Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Defense of the Traditional View (3.9 hours)
Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)

article  comments
Fame, the Founding, and the Power to Declare War (3.0 hours)
War declaration (I.8.11)
article  comments
The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States During the First Century of Its History (15.6 hours)
Amendment proposal (V)
article  comments
Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993, pp. xv-xvi (0.0 hours)
Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)

article  comments
The Flat Tax: Simplicity Desimplified (0.3 hours)
Income-tax laws (16)
article  comments
“Little Wars” and the Constitution (0.7 hours)
War declaration (I.8.11)
article  comments
Some Normative Arguments for the Unitary Executive (2.5 hours)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
article  comments
The History of the Bankruptcy Laws in the United States (1.9 hours)
Bankruptcy laws (I.8.4)
article  comments
The President’s Power To Execute the Laws (5.5 hours)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
article  comments
“Abridge” Too Far: Racial Gerrymandering, the Fifteenth Amendment, and Shaw v. Reno (1.2 hours)
Voting laws (15.2)
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Recovering the Political Constitution: The Madisonian Vision [JSTOR reader] (1.0 hours)
Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
article  comments
The Fatal Flaw in NAFTA, GATT and All Other Trade Agreements (0.6 hours)
President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Treatymaking (II.2.2)

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The Most Dangerous Branch: Executive Power to Say What the Law Is [HeinOnline paywall] (5.5 hours)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
article  comments
The “Proper” Scope of Federal Power: A Jurisdictional Interpretation of the Sweeping Clause (2.5 hours)
Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
article  comments
The President, the Senate, the Constitution, and the Confirmation Process: A Reply to Professors Strauss and Sunstein [HeinOnline paywall] (1.7 hours)
Appointment making (II.2.2)
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Constitutional Foundations of the United States Navy: Text and Context (0.7 hours)
Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
article  comments
The Line-Item Veto: The Best Response When Congress Passes One Spending “Bill” a Year (0.5 hours)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)

article  comments
“Advice” from the Very Beginning, “Consent” When the End Is Achieved [JSTOR reader] (0.4 hours)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
article  comments
The Intended Role of the Senate in Supreme Court Appointments (1.0 hours)
Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
article  comments
No. 78. A View of the Constitution of the Judicial Department in Relation to the Tenure of Good Behavior (0.2 hours)
National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)
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Conceived in Liberty: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights (0.5 hours)
President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)

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Covert War and Congressional Authority: Hidden War and Forgotten Power (3.5 hours)
Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
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Judicial Review: Reckoning on Two Kinds of Error (0.2 hours)
Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)

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Goal Statutes or Rules Statutes: The Case of the Clean Air Act (3.4 hours)
All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
article  comments
Exclusive Original Jurisdiction of the United States Supreme Court: Does it Still Exist (0.9 hours)
Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
article  comments
Congress and the Supreme Court’s Jurisdiction (1.0 hours)
Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)

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The Case for Treason (0.5 hours)
Treason punishment (III.3.2)
article  comments
Respective Roles of Senate and President in the Making and Abrogation of Treaties: The Original Intent of the Framers of the Constitution Historically Examined (5.0 hours)
President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)

article  comments
The Nature of a Pardon Under the United States Constitution (1.2 hours)
Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
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United States Standards of Weights and Measures, Their Creation and Creators (0.8 hours)
Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
article  comments
Public Office as a Public Trust: A Suggestion that Impeachment for High Crimes and Misdemeanors Implies a Fiduciary Standard [HeinOnline paywall] (1.0 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)

article  comments
Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783-1802, pp. 298-303 [Internet Archive reader/loan] (0.2 hours)
Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
article  comments
Impeachment: A Handbook (1.6 hours)
Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Impeachment trial (I.3.6)

article  comments
War-Making under the Constitution: The Original Understanding (1.2 hours)
War declaration (I.8.11)
article  comments
The Congressional Power to Raise Armies: The Constitutional and Ratifying Conventions, 1787-1788 [JSTOR reader] (0.3 hours)
Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
article  comments
Constitutional Law: Poll Taxes (0.2 hours)
Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
article  comments
The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United States (1.2 hours)
Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
article  comments
Presidential Use of Troops to Execute the Laws: A Brief History (1.0 hours)
Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
article  comments
The Law of Nations as Part of the National Law of the United States, II (1.6 hours)
Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
article  comments
The Law of Nations as Part of the National Law of the United States (1.1 hours)
Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
article  comments
Jefferson and the Navy: A Defense [JSTOR reader] (1.0 hours)
Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
article  comments
The Apportionment and Selection of Delegates. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups, pp. 402-14 (0.5 hours)
Electoral college (52)
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Suits by States Within the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court (0.8 hours)
Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
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ACU State Legislative Ratings (0.0 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, vol. I, 1873, pp. 265-6 footnote 2 (0.0 hours)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
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Interactive Constitution (0.0 hours)
Offsetting powers
Scope
Processes

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Liberty Score (0.0 hours)
Voting scores (48)
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tle (0.0 hours)
bound
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